Tobin R. Sosnick

Research Summary
My research program involves synergistic studies of protein folding and design, protein-RNA interactions, phosphorylation, signaling, and function with both experimental and computational components. The research is based on the premise that rigorous and innovative studies of basic processes have broad implications in many areas of biological research. My lab employs a range of experimental and computational methods including hydrogen exchange (HX), NMR, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), rapid mixing methods, mass spectrometry, molecular dynamics and home-grown coarse-grain folding simulations and modeling. I am a very a strong believer in collaboration, having co-mentored over twenty students and post-doctoral fellows who produce over 60 papers in the last 20 years. I have a history of developing multi-approaches to bear on a problem. Since my Ph.D. in low temperature physics in 1989, I have entered many different areas, including delineating protein and RNA folding pathways and denatured states, de novo structure prediction, and the design of light-sensitive allosteric proteins.
Protein Folding, disordered proteins, Simulations, Molecular Dynamics, stress biology, Membrane Proteins, small-angle scattering, NMR Spectroscopy, Hydrogen exchange, optogenetics
  • Harvard University, Cambridge, Ph.D. Applied Physics 1989
  • University of California, San Diego, B.A. Physics 06/1983
Biosciences Graduate Program Association
  1. Factors That Control the Force Needed to Unfold a Membrane Protein in Silico Depend on the Mode of Denaturation. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Jan 31; 24(3). View in: PubMed

  2. LILAC: enhanced actin imaging with an optogenetic Lifeact. Nat Methods. 2023 02; 20(2):214-217. View in: PubMed

  3. Development of in vivo HDX-MS with applications to a TonB-dependent transporter and other proteins. Protein Sci. 2022 09; 31(9):e4402. View in: PubMed

  4. HDX-MS performed on BtuB in E. coli outer membranes delineates the luminal domain's allostery and unfolding upon B12 and TonB binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 05 17; 119(20):e2119436119. View in: PubMed

  5. Challenges and Advantages of Accounting for Backbone Flexibility in Prediction of Protein-Protein Complexes. J Chem Theory Comput. 2022 Mar 08; 18(3):2016-2032. View in: PubMed

  6. Lipid bilayer induces contraction of the denatured state ensemble of a helical-bundle membrane protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 01 04; 119(1). View in: PubMed

  7. Prediction and Validation of a Protein's Free Energy Surface Using Hydrogen Exchange and (Importantly) Its Denaturant Dependence. J Chem Theory Comput. 2022 Jan 11; 18(1):550-561. View in: PubMed

  8. Engineered Metal-Binding Sites to Probe Protein Folding Transition States: Psi Analysis. Methods Mol Biol. 2022; 2376:31-63. View in: PubMed

  9. Folding and misfolding of potassium channel monomers during assembly and tetramerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 08 24; 118(34). View in: PubMed

  10. Molecular dynamics study of water channels in natural and synthetic amyloid-? fibrils. J Chem Phys. 2021 Jun 21; 154(23):235102. View in: PubMed

  11. Properties of protein unfolded states suggest broad selection for expanded conformational ensembles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 09 22; 117(38):23356-23364. View in: PubMed

  12. Water as a Good Solvent for Unfolded Proteins: Folding and Collapse are Fundamentally Different. J Mol Biol. 2020 04 17; 432(9):2882-2889. View in: PubMed

  13. Structural basis for adhesion G protein-coupled receptor Gpr126 function. Nat Commun. 2020 01 10; 11(1):194. View in: PubMed

  14. On the Interpretation of Force-Induced Unfolding Studies of Membrane Proteins Using Fast Simulations. Biophys J. 2019 10 15; 117(8):1429-1441. View in: PubMed

  15. Helical Contributions Mediate Light-Activated Conformational Change in the LOV2 Domain of Avena sativa Phototropin 1. ACS Omega. 2019 Jan 31; 4(1):1238-1243. View in: PubMed

  16. Commonly used FRET fluorophores promote collapse of an otherwise disordered protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 04 30; 116(18):8889-8894. View in: PubMed

  17. Accurate calculation of side chain packing and free energy with applications to protein molecular dynamics. PLoS Comput Biol. 2018 12; 14(12):e1006342. View in: PubMed

  18. Trajectory-based training enables protein simulations with accurate folding and Boltzmann ensembles in cpu-hours. PLoS Comput Biol. 2018 12; 14(12):e1006578. View in: PubMed

  19. A Membrane Burial Potential with H-Bonds and Applications to Curved Membranes and Fast Simulations. Biophys J. 2018 11 20; 115(10):1872-1884. View in: PubMed

  20. Response to Comment on "Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water". Science. 2018 08 31; 361(6405). View in: PubMed

  21. Conserved salt-bridge competition triggered by phosphorylation regulates the protein interactome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 12 19; 114(51):13453-13458. View in: PubMed

  22. Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water. Science. 2017 10 13; 358(6360):238-241. View in: PubMed

  23. Stress-Triggered Phase Separation Is an Adaptive, Evolutionarily Tuned Response. Cell. 2017 03 09; 168(6):1028-1040.e19. View in: PubMed

  24. Perplexing cooperative folding and stability of a low-sequence complexity, polyproline 2 protein lacking a hydrophobic core. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 02 28; 114(9):2241-2246. View in: PubMed

  25. Investigations of human myosin VI targeting using optogenetically controlled cargo loading. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 02 28; 114(9):E1607-E1616. View in: PubMed

  26. Aromatic claw: A new fold with high aromatic content that evades structural prediction. Protein Sci. 2017 02; 26(2):208-217. View in: PubMed

  27. The Pentablock Amphiphilic Copolymer T1107 Prevents Aggregation of Denatured and Reduced Lysozyme. Macromol Biosci. 2017 02; 17(2). View in: PubMed

  28. Erratum: "Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules" [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 22D503 (2014)]. J Chem Phys. 2016 08 07; 145(5):059903. View in: PubMed

  29. Cooperative folding near the downhill limit determined with amino acid resolution by hydrogen exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Apr 26; 113(17):4747-52. View in: PubMed

  30. Introduction of a polar core into the de novo designed protein Top7. Protein Sci. 2016 07; 25(7):1299-307. View in: PubMed

  31. Even with nonnative interactions, the updated folding transition states of the homologs Proteins G & L are extensive and similar. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jul 07; 112(27):8302-7. View in: PubMed

  32. Random coil negative control reproduces the discrepancy between scattering and FRET measurements of denatured protein dimensions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 26; 112(21):6631-6. View in: PubMed

  33. Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules. J Chem Phys. 2014 Dec 14; 141(22):22D503. View in: PubMed

  34. Benchmarking all-atom simulations using hydrogen exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 11; 111(45):15975-80. View in: PubMed

  35. Loss of conformational entropy in protein folding calculated using realistic ensembles and its implications for NMR-based calculations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 28; 111(43):15396-401. View in: PubMed

  36. Factors that control the chemistry of the LOV domain photocycle. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e87074. View in: PubMed

  37. Folding of a large protein at high structural resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 19; 110(47):18898-903. View in: PubMed

  38. Revealing what gets buried first in protein folding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 15; 110(42):16704-5. View in: PubMed

  39. A novel implicit solvent model for simulating the molecular dynamics of RNA. Biophys J. 2013 Sep 03; 105(5):1248-57. View in: PubMed

  40. Investigating models of protein function and allostery with a widespread mutational analysis of a light-activated protein. Biophys J. 2013 Aug 20; 105(4):1027-36. View in: PubMed

  41. Simplified protein models: predicting folding pathways and structure using amino acid sequences. Phys Rev Lett. 2013 Jul 12; 111(2):028103. View in: PubMed

  42. Discovering RNA-protein interactome by using chemical context profiling of the RNA-protein interface. Cell Rep. 2013 May 30; 3(5):1703-13. View in: PubMed

  43. A Probabilistic Graphical Model for Ab Initio Folding. Res Comput Mol Biol. 2009; 5541:59-73. View in: PubMed

  44. De novo prediction of protein folding pathways and structure using the principle of sequential stabilization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 23; 109(43):17442-7. View in: PubMed

  45. Context and force field dependence of the loss of protein backbone entropy upon folding using realistic denatured and native state ensembles. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Sep 26; 134(38):15929-36. View in: PubMed

  46. A "Link-Psi" strategy using crosslinking indicates that the folding transition state of ubiquitin is not very malleable. Protein Sci. 2012 Jun; 21(6):819-27. View in: PubMed

  47. The folding transition state of protein L is extensive with nonnative interactions (and not small and polarized). J Mol Biol. 2012 Jul 13; 420(3):220-34. View in: PubMed

  48. The amino-terminal helix modulates light-activated conformational changes in AsLOV2. J Mol Biol. 2012 May 25; 419(1-2):61-74. View in: PubMed

  49. On docking, scoring and assessing protein-DNA complexes in a rigid-body framework. PLoS One. 2012; 7(2):e32647. View in: PubMed

  50. TULIPs: tunable, light-controlled interacting protein tags for cell biology. Nat Methods. 2012 Mar 04; 9(4):379-84. View in: PubMed

  51. Transcriptional pausing coordinates folding of the aptamer domain and the expression platform of a riboswitch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 28; 109(9):3323-8. View in: PubMed

  52. Small-angle X-ray scattering and single-molecule FRET spectroscopy produce highly divergent views of the low-denaturant unfolded state. J Mol Biol. 2012 May 04; 418(3-4):226-36. View in: PubMed

  53. Modeling large regions in proteins: applications to loops, termini, and folding. Protein Sci. 2012 Jan; 21(1):107-21. View in: PubMed

  54. Biochemistry. How proteins fold. Science. 2011 Oct 28; 334(6055):464-5. View in: PubMed

  55. Modeling the hydration layer around proteins: applications to small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering. Biophys J. 2011 Oct 19; 101(8):2061-9. View in: PubMed

  56. Automated real-space refinement of protein structures using a realistic backbone move set. Biophys J. 2011 Aug 17; 101(4):899-909. View in: PubMed

  57. New era of molecular structure and dynamics from solution scattering experiments. Biopolymers. 2011 Aug; 95(8):503-4. View in: PubMed

  58. Ubiquitin is a novel substrate for human insulin-degrading enzyme. J Mol Biol. 2011 Feb 25; 406(3):454-66. View in: PubMed

  59. The folding of single domain proteins--have we reached a consensus? Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2011 Feb; 21(1):12-24. View in: PubMed

  60. Discrete structure of an RNA folding intermediate revealed by cryo-electron microscopy. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Nov 24; 132(46):16352-3. View in: PubMed

  61. Modeling the hydration layer around proteins: HyPred. Biophys J. 2010 Sep 08; 99(5):1611-9. View in: PubMed

  62. A probabilistic and continuous model of protein conformational space for template-free modeling. J Comput Biol. 2010 Jun; 17(6):783-98. View in: PubMed

  63. Rationally improving LOV domain-based photoswitches. Nat Methods. 2010 Aug; 7(8):623-6. View in: PubMed

  64. Extended structures in RNA folding intermediates are due to nonnative interactions rather than electrostatic repulsion. J Mol Biol. 2010 Apr 16; 397(5):1298-306. View in: PubMed

  65. Protein vivisection reveals elusive intermediates in folding. J Mol Biol. 2010 Apr 02; 397(3):777-88. View in: PubMed

  66. Protein structure prediction enhanced with evolutionary diversity: SPEED. Protein Sci. 2010 Mar; 19(3):520-34. View in: PubMed

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  68. Psi-constrained simulations of protein folding transition states: implications for calculating. J Mol Biol. 2009 Mar 06; 386(4):920-8. View in: PubMed

  69. Mimicking the folding pathway to improve homology-free protein structure prediction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 10; 106(10):3734-9. View in: PubMed

  70. Metal binding kinetics of bi-histidine sites used in psi analysis: evidence of high-energy protein folding intermediates. Biochemistry. 2009 Apr 07; 48(13):2950-9. View in: PubMed

  71. Outcome of a workshop on applications of protein models in biomedical research. Structure. 2009 Feb 13; 17(2):151-9. View in: PubMed

  72. Principal determinants leading to transition state formation of a protein-protein complex, orientation trumps side-chain interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 24; 106(8):2559-64. View in: PubMed

  73. Probing the folding transition state of ubiquitin mutants by temperature-jump-induced downhill unfolding. Biochemistry. 2008 Dec 30; 47(52):13870-7. View in: PubMed

  74. Light-activated DNA binding in a designed allosteric protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 05; 105(31):10709-14. View in: PubMed

  75. Quantifying the structural requirements of the folding transition state of protein A and other systems. J Mol Biol. 2008 Sep 19; 381(5):1362-81. View in: PubMed

  76. Kinetic barriers and the role of topology in protein and RNA folding. Protein Sci. 2008 Aug; 17(8):1308-18. View in: PubMed

  77. Single-molecule nonequilibrium periodic Mg2+-concentration jump experiments reveal details of the early folding pathways of a large RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 06; 105(18):6602-7. View in: PubMed

  78. Characterization of tertiary folding of RNA by circular dichroism and urea. Curr Protoc Nucleic Acid Chem. 2001 May; Chapter 11:Unit 11.5. View in: PubMed

  79. A large collapsed-state RNA can exhibit simple exponential single-molecule dynamics. J Mol Biol. 2008 May 09; 378(4):943-53. View in: PubMed

  80. Folding of noncoding RNAs during transcription facilitated by pausing-induced nonnative structures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Nov 13; 104(46):17995-8000. View in: PubMed

  81. Intramolecular cross-linking evaluated as a structural probe of the protein folding transition state. Biochemistry. 2007 Dec 04; 46(48):13711-9. View in: PubMed

  82. Folding of a universal ribozyme: the ribonuclease P RNA. Q Rev Biophys. 2007 May; 40(2):113-61. View in: PubMed

  83. Reduced C(beta) statistical potentials can outperform all-atom potentials in decoy identification. Protein Sci. 2007 Oct; 16(10):2123-39. View in: PubMed

  84. Fully reduced ribonuclease A does not expand at high denaturant concentration or temperature. J Mol Biol. 2007 Mar 30; 367(3):609-15. View in: PubMed

  85. The highly cooperative folding of small naturally occurring proteins is likely the result of natural selection. Cell. 2007 Feb 09; 128(3):613-24. View in: PubMed

  86. Polypeptide motions are dominated by peptide group oscillations resulting from dihedral angle correlations between nearest neighbors. Biochemistry. 2007 Jan 23; 46(3):669-82. View in: PubMed

  87. Methods for the accurate estimation of confidence intervals on protein folding phi-values. Protein Sci. 2006 Oct; 15(10):2257-64. View in: PubMed

  88. Minimalist representations and the importance of nearest neighbor effects in protein folding simulations. J Mol Biol. 2006 Nov 03; 363(4):835-57. View in: PubMed

  89. Characterizing protein folding transition States using Psi-analysis. Methods Mol Biol. 2007; 350:83-104. View in: PubMed

  90. Small proteins fold through transition states with native-like topologies. J Mol Biol. 2006 Aug 25; 361(4):755-70. View in: PubMed

  91. RNA folding during transcription. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2006; 35:161-75. View in: PubMed

  92. Characterizing the protein folding transition state using psi analysis. Chem Rev. 2006 May; 106(5):1862-76. View in: PubMed

  93. Structural basis for altering the stability of homologous RNAs from a mesophilic and a thermophilic bacterium. RNA. 2006 Apr; 12(4):598-606. View in: PubMed

  94. On the precision of experimentally determined protein folding rates and phi-values. Protein Sci. 2006 Mar; 15(3):553-63. View in: PubMed

  95. PII structure in the model peptides for unfolded proteins: studies on ubiquitin fragments and several alanine-rich peptides containing QQQ, SSS, FFF, and VVV. Proteins. 2006 May 01; 63(2):312-21. View in: PubMed

  96. Statistical coil model of the unfolded state: resolving the reconciliation problem. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 13; 102(37):13099-104. View in: PubMed

  97. Structure of a folding intermediate reveals the interplay between core and peripheral elements in RNA folding. J Mol Biol. 2005 Sep 23; 352(3):712-22. View in: PubMed

  98. Helix, sheet, and polyproline II frequencies and strong nearest neighbor effects in a restricted coil library. Biochemistry. 2005 Jul 19; 44(28):9691-702. View in: PubMed

  99. Mechanistic insights on the folding of a large ribozyme during transcription. Biochemistry. 2005 May 24; 44(20):7535-42. View in: PubMed

  100. Protein folding: defining a "standard" set of experimental conditions and a preliminary kinetic data set of two-state proteins. Protein Sci. 2005 Mar; 14(3):602-16. View in: PubMed

  101. Efficient fluorescence labeling of a large RNA through oligonucleotide hybridization. RNA. 2005 Feb; 11(2):234-9. View in: PubMed

  102. Differences in the folding transition state of ubiquitin indicated by phi and psi analyses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 14; 101(50):17377-82. View in: PubMed

  103. Barrier-limited, microsecond folding of a stable protein measured with hydrogen exchange: Implications for downhill folding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 02; 101(44):15639-44. View in: PubMed

  104. Comment on "Force-clamp spectroscopy monitors the folding trajectory of a single protein". Science. 2004 Oct 15; 306(5695):411; author reply 411. View in: PubMed

  105. Reduced contact order and RNA folding rates. J Mol Biol. 2004 Oct 01; 342(5):1359-65. View in: PubMed

  106. Fast folding of a helical protein initiated by the collision of unstructured chains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 14; 101(37):13478-82. View in: PubMed

  107. Random-coil behavior and the dimensions of chemically unfolded proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 24; 101(34):12491-6. View in: PubMed

  108. Early collapse is not an obligate step in protein folding. J Mol Biol. 2004 Apr 23; 338(2):369-82. View in: PubMed

  109. Discerning the structure and energy of multiple transition states in protein folding using psi-analysis. J Mol Biol. 2004 Mar 19; 337(2):463-75. View in: PubMed

  110. Single-molecule studies highlight conformational heterogeneity in the early folding steps of a large ribozyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jan 13; 101(2):534-9. View in: PubMed

  111. Investigations into sequence and conformational dependence of backbone entropy, inter-basin dynamics and the Flory isolated-pair hypothesis for peptides. J Mol Biol. 2003 Aug 15; 331(3):693-711. View in: PubMed

  112. RNA folding: models and perspectives. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2003 Jun; 13(3):309-16. View in: PubMed

  113. Stepwise conversion of a mesophilic to a thermophilic ribozyme. J Mol Biol. 2003 Jul 04; 330(2):177-83. View in: PubMed

  114. Large-scale context in protein folding: villin headpiece. Biochemistry. 2003 Jan 28; 42(3):664-71. View in: PubMed

  115. Fast and slow intermediate accumulation and the initial barrier mechanism in protein folding. J Mol Biol. 2002 Nov 22; 324(2):359-71. View in: PubMed

  116. D/H amide isotope effect in model alpha-helical peptides. J Am Chem Soc. 2002 Nov 27; 124(47):13994-5. View in: PubMed

  117. Getting hotter with RNA. Nat Struct Biol. 2002 Nov; 9(11):795-6. View in: PubMed

  118. Distinguishing foldable proteins from nonfolders: when and how do they differ? Proteins. 2002 Oct 01; 49(1):15-23. View in: PubMed

  119. Dynamics of hydrogen bond desolvation in protein folding. J Mol Biol. 2002 Aug 23; 321(4):659-75. View in: PubMed

  120. Entropic benefit of a cross-link in protein association. Proteins. 2002 Aug 01; 48(2):341-51. View in: PubMed

  121. The rate-limiting step in the folding of a large ribozyme without kinetic traps. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 25; 99(13):8518-23. View in: PubMed

  122. Understanding protein hydrogen bond formation with kinetic H/D amide isotope effects. Nat Struct Biol. 2002 Jun; 9(6):458-63. View in: PubMed

  123. Contribution of hydrogen bonding to protein stability estimated from isotope effects. Biochemistry. 2002 Feb 19; 41(7):2120-9. View in: PubMed

  124. Engineered metal binding sites map the heterogeneous folding landscape of a coiled coil. Nat Struct Biol. 2001 Dec; 8(12):1042-7. View in: PubMed

  125. Modular construction of a tertiary RNA structure: the specificity domain of the Bacillus subtilis RNase P RNA. Biochemistry. 2001 Sep 18; 40(37):11202-10. View in: PubMed

  126. PAS domain receptor photoactive yellow protein is converted to a molten globule state upon activation. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 15; 276(24):20821-3. View in: PubMed

  127. Altering the intermediate in the equilibrium folding of unmodified yeast tRNAPhe with monovalent and divalent cations. Biochemistry. 2001 Mar 27; 40(12):3629-38. View in: PubMed

  128. The thermodynamic origin of the stability of a thermophilic ribozyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Apr 10; 98(8):4355-60. View in: PubMed

  129. The Bacillus subtilis RNase P holoenzyme contains two RNase P RNA and two RNase P protein subunits. RNA. 2001 Feb; 7(2):233-41. View in: PubMed

  130. Mg2+-dependent compaction and folding of yeast tRNAPhe and the catalytic domain of the B. subtilis RNase P RNA determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. Biochemistry. 2000 Sep 12; 39(36):11107-13. View in: PubMed

  131. Distinguishing between two-state and three-state models for ubiquitin folding. Biochemistry. 2000 Sep 26; 39(38):11696-701. View in: PubMed

  132. Application of circular dichroism to study RNA folding transitions. Methods Enzymol. 2000; 317:393-409. View in: PubMed

  133. D/H amide kinetic isotope effects reveal when hydrogen bonds form during protein folding. Nat Struct Biol. 2000 Jan; 7(1):62-71. View in: PubMed

  134. A thermodynamic framework and cooperativity in the tertiary folding of a Mg2+-dependent ribozyme. Biochemistry. 1999 Dec 21; 38(51):16840-6. View in: PubMed

  135. Applicability of urea in the thermodynamic analysis of secondary and tertiary RNA folding. Biochemistry. 1999 Dec 21; 38(51):16831-9. View in: PubMed

  136. Mg2+-dependent folding of a large ribozyme without kinetic traps. Nat Struct Biol. 1999 Dec; 6(12):1091-5. View in: PubMed

  137. Transition state heterogeneity in GCN4 coiled coil folding studied by using multisite mutations and crosslinking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Sep 14; 96(19):10699-704. View in: PubMed

  138. Folding of a large ribozyme during transcription and the effect of the elongation factor NusA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 17; 96(17):9545-50. View in: PubMed

  139. Viscosity dependence of the folding kinetics of a dimeric and monomeric coiled coil. Biochemistry. 1999 Feb 23; 38(8):2601-9. View in: PubMed

  140. Pathway modulation, circular permutation and rapid RNA folding under kinetic control. J Mol Biol. 1999 Feb 26; 286(3):721-31. View in: PubMed

  141. The burst phase in ribonuclease A folding and solvent dependence of the unfolded state. Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Oct; 5(10):882-4. View in: PubMed

  142. Trifluoroethanol promotes helix formation by destabilizing backbone exposure: desolvation rather than native hydrogen bonding defines the kinetic pathway of dimeric coiled coil folding. Biochemistry. 1998 Oct 13; 37(41):14613-22. View in: PubMed

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