Nancy B. Schwartz

Research Summary
This program has evolved from the basic biochemistry and enzymology of glycoconjugate structure, function, and synthesis to the study of glycoconjugates in cartilage development, including the identification of gene defects in disorders of skeletal development and chondrodystrophies and the underlying pathophysiology of the matrix deficiencies. A second major area of interest involves CNS development, and the role of gliogenesis and glial cell function in traumatic brain injury, infection and developmental disorders.
Chondrodystroph, Genetic disorders, CNS development
  • University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, PhD Biochemistry 1971
  • University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, Postdoc Biochemistry 1971-74
Awards & Honors
  • - American Heart Association Established Investigatorship
  • - Arthritis Foundation Fellowship
  • - NIH Mentor of Excellence Award
  • - NIH Merit Awardee
  • - NPA Distinguished Service Award
  • - Research Career Development Award
  1. Chemistry and Function of Glycosaminoglycans in the Nervous System. Adv Neurobiol. 2023; 29:117-162. View in: PubMed

  2. Surveying the experience of postdocs in the United States before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Elife. 2022 07 26; 11. View in: PubMed

  3. Roles of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans as Regulators of Skeletal Development. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022; 10:745372. View in: PubMed

  4. Brain transcriptome analysis of a CLN2 mouse model as a function of disease progression. J Neuroinflammation. 2021 Nov 08; 18(1):262. View in: PubMed

  5. Mapping Proteoglycan Function Using Novel Genetic Strategies. Methods Mol Biol. 2022; 2303:731-752. View in: PubMed

  6. Grant application outcomes for biomedical researchers who participated in the National Research Mentoring Network's Grant Writing Coaching Programs. PLoS One. 2020; 15(11):e0241851. View in: PubMed

  7. Vascular dimorphism ensured by regulated proteoglycan dynamics favors rapid umbilical artery closure at birth. Elife. 2020 09 10; 9. View in: PubMed

  8. Leveraging a collaborative consortium model of mentee/mentor?training to foster career progression of underrepresented postdoctoral researchers and promote institutional diversity and inclusion. PLoS One. 2020; 15(9):e0238518. View in: PubMed

  9. The Role of Dot1l in Prenatal and Postnatal Murine Chondrocytes and Trabecular Bone. JBMR Plus. 2020 Feb; 4(2):e10254. View in: PubMed

  10. Comparisons and Approaches of PREP Programs at Different Stages of Maturity: Challenges, Best Practices and Benefits. Ethn Dis. 2020; 30(1):55-64. View in: PubMed

  11. Global Brain Transcriptome Analysis of a Tpp1 Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses Mouse Model. ASN Neuro. 2019 Jan-Dec; 11:1759091419843393. View in: PubMed

  12. United States National Postdoc Survey results and the interaction of gender, career choice and mentor impact. Elife. 2018 12 18; 7. View in: PubMed

  13. Proteoglycans in brain development and pathogenesis. FEBS Lett. 2018 12; 592(23):3791-3805. View in: PubMed

  14. Glial cell responses in a murine multifactorial perinatal brain injury model. Brain Res. 2018 02 15; 1681:52-63. View in: PubMed

  15. The future of graduate and postdoctoral training in the biosciences. Elife. 2017 10 19; 6. View in: PubMed

  16. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain. Med Phys. 2015 Mar; 42(3):1463-72. View in: PubMed

  17. Delivery and tracking of quantum dot peptide bioconjugates in an intact developing avian brain. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2015 Mar 18; 6(3):494-504. View in: PubMed

  18. Aggrecan is required for growth plate cytoarchitecture and differentiation. Dev Biol. 2014 Dec 15; 396(2):224-36. View in: PubMed

  19. Mapping proteoglycan functions with glycosidases. Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1229:443-55. View in: PubMed

  20. Chemistry and function of glycosaminoglycans in the nervous system. Adv Neurobiol. 2014; 9:89-115. View in: PubMed

  21. Forward genetics defines Xylt1 as a key, conserved regulator of early chondrocyte maturation and skeletal length. Dev Biol. 2014 Jan 01; 385(1):67-82. View in: PubMed

  22. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 deficiency increases hyaluronan synthesis by up-regulation of Hyaluronan synthase 2 through decreased ceramide production and activation of Akt. J Biol Chem. 2012 Apr 20; 287(17):13620-32. View in: PubMed

  23. Proteoglycans: gene cloning. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 836:3-21. View in: PubMed

  24. Astrocyte precursor response to embryonic brain injury. Brain Res. 2011 May 10; 1389:35-49. View in: PubMed

  25. Regulation of synthesis of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Ups J Med Sci. 1977; 82(2):76-7. View in: PubMed

  26. Sulfation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans is necessary for proper Indian hedgehog signaling in the developing growth plate. Development. 2009 May; 136(10):1697-706. View in: PubMed

  27. Aggrecan modulation of growth plate morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009 May 15; 329(2):242-57. View in: PubMed

  28. Sulfate activation enzymes: phylogeny and association with pyrophosphatase. J Mol Evol. 2009 Jan; 68(1):1-13. View in: PubMed

  29. Glial migratory streams in the developing hindbrain: a slice culture approach. J Neurosci Methods. 2009 Feb 15; 177(1):30-43. View in: PubMed

  30. Aggrecan is expressed by embryonic brain glia and regulates astrocyte development. Dev Biol. 2008 Mar 01; 315(1):114-24. View in: PubMed

  31. Got sulfate? Luring axons this way and that. Chem Biol. 2007 Feb; 14(2):119-20. View in: PubMed

  32. APBP-1, a DNA/RNA-binding protein, interacts with the chick aggrecan regulatory region. J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 21; 280(42):35606-16. View in: PubMed

  33. Proteoglycans in brain development. Glycoconj J. 2004; 21(6):329-41. View in: PubMed

  34. Aggrecan regulates telencephalic neuronal aggregation in culture. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003 Jul 12; 143(2):207-16. View in: PubMed

  35. Developmental expression of the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope on aggrecan during chondrogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2003 Jan; 226(1):42-50. View in: PubMed

  36. Identification and functional characterization of the novel BM-motif in the murine phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthetase. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 03; 278(1):71-5. View in: PubMed

  37. Chondrodysplasias due to proteoglycan defects. Glycobiology. 2002 Apr; 12(4):57R-68R. View in: PubMed

  38. cis elements that control the expression of chick aggrecan. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18; 276(20):16894-903. View in: PubMed

  39. Increased extracellular magnesium modulates proliferation in fetal neural cells in culture. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2001 Apr 30; 127(2):99-109. View in: PubMed

  40. Role of the C-terminal G3 domain in sorting and secretion of aggrecan core protein and ubiquitin-mediated degradation of accumulated mutant precursors. J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 10; 275(45):35098-105. View in: PubMed

  41. Cell specific-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression during CNS morphogenesis in the chick embryo. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2000 Nov; 18(7):629-41. View in: PubMed

  42. Biosynthesis and regulation of expression of proteoglycans. Front Biosci. 2000 Jul 01; 5:D649-55. View in: PubMed

  43. Completion of the mouse aggrecan gene structure and identification of the defect in the cmd-Bc mouse as a near complete deletion of the murine aggrecan gene. Mamm Genome. 1999 Dec; 10(12):1119-25. View in: PubMed

  44. Genomic organization of the mouse and human genes encoding the ATP sulfurylase/adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase isoform SK2. J Biol Chem. 1999 Nov 19; 274(47):33306-12. View in: PubMed

  45. Chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis of conserved HXXH and PP-loop motif arginines and histidines in the murine bifunctional ATP sulfurylase/adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase. J Biol Chem. 1999 Oct 08; 274(41):28929-36. View in: PubMed

  46. Activity and stability of recombinant bifunctional rearranged and monofunctional domains of ATP-sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase. J Biol Chem. 1999 Apr 16; 274(16):10751-7. View in: PubMed

  47. Domain organization, genomic structure, evolution, and regulation of expression of the aggrecan gene family. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 1999; 62:177-225. View in: PubMed

  48. A member of a family of sulfate-activating enzymes causes murine brachymorphism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jul 21; 95(15):8681-5. View in: PubMed

  49. Sulfate activation and transport in mammals: system components and mechanisms. Chem Biol Interact. 1998 Feb 20; 109(1-3):143-51. View in: PubMed

  50. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis of the ATP-binding motif (P-loop) in the bifunctional murine ATP-sulfurylase/adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1998 Apr 17; 273(16):9450-6. View in: PubMed

  51. Viral and cellular requirements for entry of herpes simplex virus type 1 into primary neuronal cells. J Gen Virol. 1998 Mar; 79 ( Pt 3):549-59. View in: PubMed

  52. Brain aggrecan. Perspect Dev Neurobiol. 1996; 3(4):291-306. View in: PubMed

  53. Structural and functional analysis of the chick chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (aggrecan) promoter and enhancer region. J Biol Chem. 1997 Apr 25; 272(17):11566-74. View in: PubMed

  54. S103L reactive chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (aggrecan) mRNA expressed in developing chick brain and cartilage is encoded by a single gene. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996 Mar; 36(2):309-21. View in: PubMed

  55. The nanomelic mutation in the aggrecan gene is expressed in chick chondrocytes and neurons. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1996 Jun; 14(3):191-201. View in: PubMed

  56. Age-dependent inhibition of neural crest migration by the notochord correlates with alterations in the S103L chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Exp Cell Res. 1996 May 25; 225(1):195-206. View in: PubMed

  57. Identification and partial purification of PAPS translocase. Biochemistry. 1996 Mar 26; 35(12):3695-703. View in: PubMed

  58. Kinetics of PAPS translocase: evidence for an antiport mechanism. Biochemistry. 1996 Mar 26; 35(12):3685-94. View in: PubMed

  59. Gene structure of chick cartilage chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (aggrecan) core protein. J Mol Evol. 1995 Dec; 41(6):878-85. View in: PubMed

  60. Mechanism of the inhibitory action of RU486 on the secondary follicle-stimulating hormone surge. Endocrinology. 1996 Jan; 137(1):85-9. View in: PubMed

  61. Xylosylation is an endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi event. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 25; 268(15):11105-12. View in: PubMed

  62. Topography of glycosylation and UDP-xylose production. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 25; 268(15):11097-104. View in: PubMed

  63. Large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of developing chick CNS are expressed in cerebral hemisphere neuronal cultures. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1993 Jun 08; 73(2):261-72. View in: PubMed

  64. cDNA cloning of chick cartilage chondroitin sulfate (aggrecan) core protein and identification of a stop codon in the aggrecan gene associated with the chondrodystrophy, nanomelia. J Biol Chem. 1993 Nov 05; 268(31):23504-11. View in: PubMed

  65. Intermediate channeling between ATP sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase from rat chondrosarcoma. Biochemistry. 1994 Jun 07; 33(22):6822-7. View in: PubMed

  66. Rat chondrosarcoma ATP sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase reside on a single bifunctional protein. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17; 33(19):5920-5. View in: PubMed

  67. Developmental expression of S103L cross-reacting proteoglycans in embryonic chick. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1993; 383B:505-14. View in: PubMed

  68. Kinetic mechanism of adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate kinase from rat chondrosarcoma. Biochem J. 1994 Jul 15; 301 ( Pt 2):355-9. View in: PubMed

  69. Kinetic mechanism of ATP-sulphurylase from rat chondrosarcoma. Biochem J. 1994 Jul 15; 301 ( Pt 2):349-54. View in: PubMed

  70. The chondrodystrophy, nanomelia: biosynthesis and processing of the defective aggrecan precursor. Biochem J. 1994 Jul 01; 301 ( Pt 1):211-6. View in: PubMed

  71. Sulfate-activating enzymes in normal and brachymorphic mice: evidence for a channeling defect. Biochemistry. 1995 Jan 24; 34(3):940-5. View in: PubMed

  72. Hyperoxia alone causes changes in lung proteoglycans and hyaluronan in neonatal rat pups. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1995 Dec; 13(6):629-38. View in: PubMed

  73. The biochemically and immunologically distinct CSPG of notochord is a product of the aggrecan gene. Dev Biol. 1995 Oct; 171(2):655-64. View in: PubMed

  74. The isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding the mouse bifunctional ATP sulfurylase-adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase. J Biol Chem. 1995 Dec 08; 270(49):29453-9. View in: PubMed

  75. Preliminary characterization of a xylose acceptor prepared by hydrogen fluoride treatment of proteoglycan core protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Jan 29; 92(2):618-23. View in: PubMed

  76. Synthesis of cartilage proteoglycans. Ala J Med Sci. 1981 Jan; 18(1):41-5. View in: PubMed

  77. The impact of constant light on the estrous cycle of the rat. Endocrinology. 1980 Apr; 106(4):1230-8. View in: PubMed

  78. Defect in proteoglycan synthesis in brachymorphic mice. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1982; 110 Pt B:97-103. View in: PubMed

  79. The irreversible effect of bromodeoxyuridine on chick chondrocytes. Exp Cell Res. 1982 May; 139(1):79-86. View in: PubMed

  80. Role of ovarian inhibin (folliculostatin) in regulating FSH secretion in the female rat. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1982; 147:15-36. View in: PubMed

  81. Subcellular localization of the synthesis and glycosylation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jun 10; 259(11):7300-10. View in: PubMed

  82. Location of xylosyltransferase in the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum of embryonic cartilage cells. Connect Tissue Res. 1984; 12(2):151-63. View in: PubMed

  83. Subcellular localization of hyaluronate synthetase in oligodendroglioma cells. J Biol Chem. 1984 Apr 25; 259(8):5017-23. View in: PubMed

  84. Immunological evidence for two distinct chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core proteins: differential expression in cartilage matrix deficient mice. Dev Biol. 1983 Jul; 98(1):139-47. View in: PubMed

  85. Defect in 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthesis in brachymorphic mice. II. Tissue distribution of the defect. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1982 Apr 01; 214(2):602-9. View in: PubMed

  86. Defect in 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthesis in brachymorphic mice. I. Characterization of the defect. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1982 Apr 01; 214(2):589-601. View in: PubMed

  87. Immunological methods in the study of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Curr Top Dev Biol. 1980; 14(Pt 2):169-98. View in: PubMed

  88. Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate: interaction between xylosyltransferase and galactosyltransferase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1974 Feb 04; 56(3):717-24. View in: PubMed

  89. Stimulation of synthesis of free chondroitin sulfate chains by beta-D-xylosides in cultured cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Oct; 71(10):4047-51. View in: PubMed

  90. Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. Purification of UDP-D-xylose:core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase by affinity chromatography. Carbohydr Res. 1974 Oct; 37(1):167-80. View in: PubMed

  91. L-Rhamnulose 1-phosphate aldolase of Escherichia coli. The role of metal in enzyme structure. Biochemistry. 1974 Apr 09; 13(8):1726-30. View in: PubMed

  92. Deglycosylation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan by hydrogen fluoride in pyridine. Anal Biochem. 1985 Apr; 146(1):232-7. View in: PubMed

  93. Effect of hyaluronidase treatment of intact cells on hyaluronate synthetase activity. Biochemistry. 1985 Dec 31; 24(27):7899-906. View in: PubMed

  94. Mechanisms of chain initiation in the biosynthesis of connective tissue polysaccharides. Fed Proc. 1985 Feb; 44(2):373-80. View in: PubMed

  95. Synthesis and structure of proteoglycan core protein. Fed Proc. 1985 Feb; 44(2):369-72. View in: PubMed

  96. Mechanism for the decreased biosynthesis of cartilage proteoglycan in the scorbutic guinea pig. J Biol Chem. 1986 Aug 25; 261(24):11166-72. View in: PubMed

  97. Kinetic analysis of 'rapid onset' neurite formation in NG108-15 cells reveals a dual role for substratum-bound laminin. Brain Res. 1987 Jul; 431(1):111-21. View in: PubMed

  98. Stimulation of collagen and glycosaminoglycan production by phenytoin 5,5-diphenylhydantoin in monolayer cultures of mesenchymal cells derived from embryonic chick sternae. Arch Oral Biol. 1986; 31(12):819-23. View in: PubMed

  99. Identification and synthesis of a recognition signal for the attachment of glycosaminoglycans to proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 May; 84(10):3194-8. View in: PubMed

  100. Reconstitution of adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate transporter from rat brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Sep 30; 155(3):1271-7. View in: PubMed

  101. Kinetics of intracellular processing of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein and other matrix components. J Cell Biol. 1988 Jun; 106(6):2191-202. View in: PubMed

  102. Biochemical correlations in animal models of chondrodysplasias. Pathol Immunopathol Res. 1988; 7(1-2):68-72. View in: PubMed

  103. Co-purification and characterization of ATP-sulfurylase and adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase from rat chondrosarcoma. J Biol Chem. 1987 May 25; 262(15):7374-82. View in: PubMed

  104. Cranin: a laminin-binding protein of cell membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Sep; 84(18):6457-61. View in: PubMed

  105. The effects of phenytoin (5,5-diphenylhydantoin) on human gingival fibroblasts in culture. J Periodontal Res. 1987 Jul; 22(4):307-12. View in: PubMed

  106. Synthesis and properties of a nonhydrolyzable adenosine phosphosulfate analog. Anal Biochem. 1989 Feb 15; 177(1):67-71. View in: PubMed

  107. Solubilization and partial purification of hyaluronate synthetase from oligodendroglioma cells. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jul 15; 264(20):11776-83. View in: PubMed

  108. An improved method of sequential alcian blue and ammoniacal silver staining of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in polyacrylamide gels. Anal Biochem. 1987 Dec; 167(2):295-300. View in: PubMed

  109. Chick cartilage chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein. I. Generation and characterization of peptides and specificity for glycosaminoglycan attachment. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jul 15; 265(20):12075-87. View in: PubMed

  110. Deglycosylation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and derived peptides. Biochemistry. 1990 Jan 30; 29(4):907-14. View in: PubMed

  111. Initiation of chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis: a kinetic analysis of UDP-D-xylose: core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase. Biochemistry. 1991 Jul 30; 30(30):7477-83. View in: PubMed

  112. Dibasic amines as competitive ions improve the resolution between polyanionic nucleotides. Anal Biochem. 1991 Aug 01; 196(2):229-33. View in: PubMed

  113. Ultrastructural characterization of embryonic chick cartilage proteoglycan core protein and the mapping of a monoclonal antibody epitope. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jul 15; 265(20):12098-103. View in: PubMed

  114. Chick cartilage chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein. II. Nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone and localization of the S103L epitope. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jul 15; 265(20):12088-97. View in: PubMed

  115. Synthesis and utilization of a nonhydrolyzable phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate analog. Anal Biochem. 1991 Oct; 198(1):60-7. View in: PubMed

  116. Two immunologically and developmentally distinct chondroitin sulfate proteolglycans in embryonic chick brain. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 15; 267(17):12149-61. View in: PubMed

  117. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression during neuronal development. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1992 Aug-Sep; 38(5-6):585-93. View in: PubMed

  118. Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate: immunoprecipitation of interacting xylosyltransferase and galactosyltransferase. FEBS Lett. 1975 Jan 01; 49(3):342-5. View in: PubMed

  119. Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. Solubilization of chondroitin sulfate glycosyltransferases and partial purification of uridine diphosphate-D-galactose:D-xylose galactosyltrans. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jul 10; 250(13):5200-7. View in: PubMed

  120. Chondroitin sulfate glycosyltransferases in cultured chondrocytes. Turnover, oscillatory change during growth, and suppression by 5-bromodeoxyuridine. J Biol Chem. 1976 Jun 10; 251(11):3346-51. View in: PubMed

  121. Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. Role of phospholipids in the activity of UDP-D-galactose: D-xylose galactosyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1976 Jan 25; 251(2):285-91. View in: PubMed

  122. Acute changes in serum gonadotrophins and steroids following orchidectomy in the rat: role of the adrenal gland. Endocrinology. 1977 Jun; 100(6):1550-6. View in: PubMed

  123. Purification of rat chondrosarcoma xylosyltransferase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1975 Nov; 171(1):136-44. View in: PubMed

  124. Defective PAPS-synthesis in epiphyseal cartilage from brachymorphic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1978 May 15; 82(1):173-8. View in: PubMed

  125. Synthesis and secretion of an altered chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. J Biol Chem. 1979 Apr 10; 254(7):2271-7. View in: PubMed

  126. Regulation of chondroitin sulfate synthesis. Effect of beta-xylosides on synthesis of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, chondroitin sulfate chains, and core protein. J Biol Chem. 1977 Sep 25; 252(18):6316-21. View in: PubMed

  127. The role of adrenal and ovarian steroids in the control of serum LH and FSH. Endocrinology. 1977 Jul; 101(1):162-72. View in: PubMed

  128. Biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus. J Biol Chem. 1979 Jul 25; 254(14):6252-61. View in: PubMed

  129. Steroid feedback regulation of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone secretion rates in male and female rats. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1977 Sep; 3(1-2):61-95. View in: PubMed

  130. Biosynthesis of chondroitin 4-sulfate-proteoglycan by a transplantable rat chondrosarcoma. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1975 Nov; 171(1):124-35. View in: PubMed

  131. Defect in 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate formation in brachymorphic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Dec; 76(12):6615-8. View in: PubMed

  132. UDP-glucuronate carboxy-lyase in cultured chondrocytes. J Biol Chem. 1977 Oct 10; 252(19):6707-10. View in: PubMed

  133. Stimulation of synthesis of free chondroitin sulfate chains by beta-D-xylosides in cultured cells. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jul 25; 250(14):5400-6. View in: PubMed

  134. Effect of beta-xylosides on synthesis of cartilage-specific proteoglycan in chondrocyte cultures. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1976 Aug 09; 71(3):851-6. View in: PubMed

  135. Stimulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan production by chondrocytes in monolayer. Connect Tissue Res. 1975; 3(2):115-22. View in: PubMed

  136. Chapter 03764: Chondrodysplasias, 2018 in Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, Ed. M.Kaplan, Elsevier Ltd., Oxford, UK. ::::

  137. Matrix Biology: Gradients and patterns within the extracellular matrix. In "Mimicking the Extracellular Matrix: The Intersection of Matrix Biology and Biomaterials" Royal Society of Chemistry Publishing. (Chapter 2; pp 31-64).::::